Electrical Stimulation (TENS) Analgesic Method For Relieving Dysmenorrhea

         

                                              

                Electrical stimulation (TENS) analgesic method for relieving dysmenorrhea

     

     Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a non-drug non-invasive analgesic method. TENS stimulates the perceptual nerve to block the transmission of nociceptive nerve signals through a mild current (usually no more than 25 microcoulombs per unit time) to achieve analgesic effect.


Indication edit

    The analgesic device made by the TENS principle is a second-class medical device used to relieve pain symptoms and treat chronic stubborn pain, acute post-traumatic pain and postoperative pain, and pain associated with arthritis (see US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidelines


Description of dysmenorrhea

    Dysmenorrhea is an experience of lower abdominal pain during menstrual cramps. The definition of primary dysmenorrhea is that there is no obvious cause of pain during menstrual cramps, while the definition of secondary dysmenorrhea is that the pain is caused by underlying pathological causes (Beard and Pearce, 1989). Menstrual pain is basically considered to be related to the prostaglandin contained in menstrual fluid, which causes excessive contraction of the muscle layer on the inner wall of the uterus resulting in uterine local anemia. Successful dysmenorrhea management involves the use of prostaglandin synthase inhibitors. However, some women cannot use these drugs because of side effects. Therefore, non-drug alternatives have considerable value in the management of dysmenorrhea. 


Clinical research profile editor

     Clinical research (refer to the following [2]) proves that the dysmenorrheal and analgesic instrument made using the TENS principle is effective for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, so it has been popularized and applied in Europe and the United States.


     The clinical study of the analgesic effect of TENS dysmenorrhea for dysmenorrhea is mainly compared with placebo or analgesics. The overall results are satisfactory with regard to the degree of analgesia obtained. Kaplan et al. Conducted a study in 1994 and first obtained a benchmark score for pain levels in two menstrual cycles in a group of 61 women. Then, during the next 2 menstrual cycles, using the TENS dysmenorrhea analgesic device, apply triangle electrodes to the skin parts (ends of the uterine sensory nerve line) corresponding to the spine T10, 11, and 12. After scoring and analyzing the pain after these two menstrual cycles, it was found that 59% of patients had moderate analgesic effects, 31.2% of patients had complete analgesia, and 10% of patients had no effect. A 1987 report by Neighbors et al. Also mentioned that the use of acupuncture-type TENS dysmenorrhea analgesics versus sugar pills placebo in 20 sampled patients had achieved significant analgesic effects (p <0.05). The dysmenorrheal analgesic device was applied to four acupuncture points B21, B29, ST36, and SP6 on both sides.

        

      The other group used a placebo machine to compare conventional and acupuncture dysmenorrhea analgesics (the authors call this the control group despite the use of a placebo TENS machine). In a 1985 study by Mannheimer and Whalen, a conventional TENS dysmenorrhea and analgesic TENS machine were used. Two channels of crossed electrodes were placed on the horizontal line of the navel and the anterior superior iliac spine. Acupuncture points on SP6 and SP10. In this study, all patients were treated for 30 minutes, and patients were told to resume treatment if pain reappears during the menstrual cycle (that is, to be used at home). The results show that the conventional TENS dysmenorrheal analgesic device is significantly better than the average percentage of analgesic pain (p <0.05) and the duration of analgesia (it is worth noting that the latter has changed from p <0.05 to p <0.1). Placebo TENS machine.

The three studies mentioned above have confirmed the positive effects of TENS analgesics, but what about the comparison between TENS dysmenorrhea and analgesic drug intervention for dysmenorrhea? The following two studies will answer this particular question. Dawood and Ramos in 1990 randomly compared TENS dysmenorrhea analgesics, placebo TENS machines, and ibuprofen (isobutyric acid) among 32 women with primary dysmenorrhea in 4 randomized ways. The crossover design involved all women randomly receiving one of 3 treatments during 4 menstrual cramps: 2 times with a TENS dysmenorrhea pain reliever, 1 time with ibuprofen, and 1 time with a placebo TENS machine. The placement of the TENS electrode follows the experiment performed by Kaplan et al. In 1994, that is, it was placed on the skin position corresponding to T10-12. The duration of treatment in this study was relatively long. The TENS machine is used continuously for 8 hours at the beginning, and then used again as needed. During the use of the TENS dysmenorrhea analgesic device and the TENS comforter, it was observed whether additional "emergency drugs (such as ibuprofen)" and the amount of it were used. The results showed that compared with the other two groups, the use of TENS dysmenorrhea analgesics significantly reduced the number of patients requiring "emergency medication" intervention (p <0.01); in addition, the use of TENS dysmenorrhea analgesics also delayed the additional demand for ibuprofen ( p <0.05).

      The last study, conducted by Milsom et al., In 1994, compared a single dose of naproxen (methnaprofen) with a TENS dysmenorrheal analgesic device at two menstrual periods. This is another crossover study of 12 patients receiving a treatment during a menstrual period. The pain score and intrauterine pressure were observed during the study. The TENS dysmenorrheal analgesic device acts on the lower abdomen and back and repeats until the analgesic effect appears. Both treatments can significantly reduce pain, but it is interesting to note that naproxen significantly inhibits all parameters of uterine activity (p <0.01) at the same time, such as diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, etc., while TENS dysmenorrheal analgesics does not. Because these results suggest that TENS analgesia has nothing to do with internal uterine pressure, questions remain about how TENS reduces menstrual pain. The authors discussed some theories, and finally concluded that the analgesic effect of TENS might give way to the weakening of local anemia caused by local blood flow and reduced oxygen consumption.

Editing treatment methods

       Using the TENS principle, a dysmenorrheal analgesic device with accurate power output is produced. It is connected to a conductive adhesive through a wire, and the adhesive is affixed to a specific position on the lower abdomen. When the analgesic device works, it has analgesic effect.